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Fiber Optics: Fiber Optics is essentially strands of optically pure glass or plastics that have revolutionized telecommunications-telephony, internet, cable TV et al. As thin as human hairs Fiber Optic lines are used for transmitting digital signals over long distances including under the sea. Optical Fibers are bundled up into thick optical cables for   transmitting light signals.Along with telecommunications, Optical fibers are also finding extensive use in medical and defence applications.

Fiber Bragg Gratings: Fiber Bragg Gratings technology is extensively used in the Telecommunications industry. They find applications in signal processing, sensors, fiber lasers, wavelength division multiplexing, broad-band filtering, laser stabilization et al. Fiber Bragg Gratings FBG in short are made using a complex process. The core of a single-mode fiber is laterally exposed to a periodic pattern of intense ultraviolet light.  Due to this exposure there’s a permanent increase in the refractive index of the fiber's core.  This activity leads to the creation of a fixed index modulation based on the exposure pattern. The fixed index modulation is known as grating. 


Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA): Field Programmable Gate array (FPGA) devices find extensive use in the logic or digital electronic circuits. An FPGA consists of Integrated circuits (IC). The IC includes a 2D array of general-purpose logic circuits, termed as logic blocks or cells. Their functions are programmable. All the cells are interlinked by programmable buses. The basic architecture of an FPGA device consists an array of configurable logic blocks (CLBs) which are embedded in a configurable interconnect structure. On all sides of the CLBS are the configurable I/O blocks (IOBs). FPGA technology applications find wide use in different spheres, right from equipment for video and imaging, circuitry for spacecraft and other strategic applications requiring high reliability and extreme environment applications.

Fluorescence Correlation Spectrometers: Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy (FCS) is a single-molecule detection technique for high-sensitivity measurement of molecular interactions. Unique features of FCS measurements make it ideal for use in assaying techniques.