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Major Research Output

A few of the technologies developed successfully at Centre for excellence IISC, IITB, IITM, IITD under the Nanotechnology Programme are:

Diabetes, Anaemia and Malnutrition, Kidney and Liver disease Monitoring system

Based on electrochemical biosensors research carried out at the Centre for Nano Science and Engineering (CeNSE), a Start-up company PathShodh Healthcare Pvt Ltd has been incubated at IISc Bangalore. PathShodh has introduced first of its kind handheld device with the capability to measure multiple biomarkers specifically targeting Diabetes and its complications, Kidney disease, Anemia and Liver related ailments. The product has already been deployed in the field and is currently going through ISO 13485 and CE certification.

PathShodh's existing platform technology, "anuPath (TM)", to measure multiple bio-markers is proposed to be redesigned and validated to test COVID-19. Since, there is no strip based test available for COVID-19 at present anywhere in the world, a disposable test strips utilizing a novel receptor chemistry to perform highly accurate and sensitive COVID-19 antibody (IgG and IgM) test is proposed. The test may be done with tiny finger prick blood sample in shorter time at substantially low cost lesser than ELISA kit. For more details visit: https://pathshodh.com/media.php

disease Monitoring system

Portable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) Platform

Under the NNetRA project funded by MeitY, a  Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) System to detect blood related diseases has been developed by IISc to detect Malaria and other blood related diseases. The system uses PCR-Thermal Cyclers in conjunction with adapter chain and fluorescence reader unit.  Technology for the same has been transferred to a Start-up Shanmukha Innovations Pvt Ltd incubated at IISc for its commercialization.

This start-up would be developing portable molecular diagnostic lab for COVID-19 testing. Instead of existing RT-PCR for testing COVID-19, it uses PCR-Thermal Cyclers in conjunction with adapter chain and fluorescence reader unit, considered equivalent to that of gold standard technology namely RT-PCR. The system would enable shorter turn-around-time compared to 24-72 hours with central labs with capability of processing and testing larger number of samples/day/unit. For more details visit https://covid19.iisc.ac.in/mobile-diagnostic-testing-lab-for-covid-19/

Portable PCR system

Gas Sensors

Under the NNetRA project of MeitY, Gas sensors (for multiple identified gases NO2, O2 and N2H4 and H2) have been developed by IISc Bangalore with the following deliverables:

  • Scaling up of metal oxide gas sensor technology for routine production.
  • Long term reliability assessment of metal oxide gas sensors.
  • Field deployment of gas sensors with potential partners from strategic sectors and industry.
  • SCL, Mohali has been given the technology for the development of NO2, O2 and N2H4 and H2 sensors for strategic applications. Field trials of these sensors have already been performed at SHAR, Sriharikota. The sensors are also undergoing field trials for their possible use in railway coaches.
  • Since N2 and O2 gases are mixed in different ratios in ventilator, it is important to measure the precise concentration of O2 in the gas pushed by ventilator into patient’s lungs. In a very short time, using 3D printed package, the project team was able to deliver O2 gas sensor chip to be used in ventilators.
  • This sensor chip is also being used in another project on “Oxygen concentrator”, to generate 100% oxygen from ambient air by filtering N2 gas out in a membrane.

Final Transmitter and Sensor System

Portable Imaging Flow Cytometer for Malaria Detection

Microfluidic chip with channels on PDMS/PC/PMMA, to detect the flow of PS beads/cells through the channels are used for flow cytometry system for blood cell counting of atleast 20 L/min with integrated optical system consisting of Light Emitting Diode (LEDs) of nominal wavelength 633 nm and 488 nm with a power of 10-20 mW. Two prototypes have been developed using microfluidics technology, one on cell phone and another on the digital camera platform.


Soil moisture sensor

Two prototypes for soil moisture sensor developed and tested – one with Temperature pulse probe and second with electrochemical potential principle. Also a cantilever based soil moisture sensor system has been developed which has a wireless connectivity. Further work is continued on the instrumentation aspects of wireless sensor nodes for agricultural systems.


Explosive Vapour Sensor

Explosive Vapour Sensor using poly (3-hexythiophene) and Cu-tetraphenyl-porphyrin composite based organic field effect transistor has been developed. This technology can detect vapours of explosives.     


Gas Sensor Array for Environmental Pollution Monitoring:

A 4 element Metal oxide gas sensor array chip has been developed to sense CO2 gas in the range of 350 ppm to 1000 ppm. The sensor consumes extremely low power of about 50mW for 4 sensors, and is selective against gases such as SO2, CO and NOx.

 A low cost sensor platform for determining ionizing radiation using sensors based on organic semiconducting materials has been demonstrated.


Health Care – Silicon Locket

A web enabled efficient and intelligent remote health care system for cardiac diagnostics entitled ‘Silicon Locket’ has been developed.



MEMS pressure sensor

Design, fabrication and testing of a Nanocrystalline silicon MEMS pressure sensor in the range of 1mbar to1bar.


A top down process has been developed to create transistors with nano needles on top of the gate oxide, to sense intracellular action potential. The process is capable of creating array of Nano needle Gated FETs (NGFETs).

Envirobat Wireless Sensor for Air Quality

A system prototype of wireless sensor for air quality has been developed for environmental monitoring with following capabilities:

  • Real time sensors for CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, humidity, temperature,
  • Wireless transmission of sensor data through GSM link
  • On board memory for data logging
  • Server side software for data analysis and rendering
  • Probing each of the device in a deployed Envirobat network



About 70 patents have been filed under the projects sponsored by Nanotechnology Division. Some of the filed patents are as follows:

  1. “Regioregular Conjugated Polymers Based on 3, 4-b-diheteropentalenes” Anil Kumar, Indian Patent.
  2. “Regioregular Conjugated Copolymers Based on Thieno[3,4-b]thiophene and process for preparation of same” Anil Kumar, Indian Patent.
  3. “Nickel (0) Catalyzed Kumada Chain Transfer Polycondensation” Anil Kumar, Indian Patent.
  4. “A Novel Process to get highly Conducting and Highly Transparent Thin Films and its Applications as Transparent Conductor” Anil Kumar, Smita Mukherjee, Indian Patent.
  5. “Novel Homogeneous Nickel (II) Catalyst” Anil Kumar, Indian Patent.
  6. “Automated Clinical Microscopy by Image‐based Flow Cytometer for Analyzing Substances and a Method Thereof” by Sai Siva Gorthi and Veerendra Kalyan Jagannadh. Indian Provisional Patent.
  7. “Double Quantum Well Enhancement Mode Nitride HEMT” Indian Patent.
  8. “An Improved Molecular Beam Epitaxy Multi Chamber Cluster Tool and Processes For Integration Of Multiple Growth Combination Of Group III-V Semiconductor Heterostructures”. Indian Patent.
  9.  Novel Ways of Introducing High Voltage Handling Capabilities in FinFET Technologies – US patent. 
  10. Sandwich Tunneling Barrier FET - US patent. An N-Type Tunnel-FET device with strained SiGe layer at source - Indian Patent
  11. A sub-threshold forced plate FET sensor for sensing inertial displacement, a method and system thereof - Indian Patent
  12. A sub-threshold elastic deflection FET sensor for sensing pressure/force, a method and system thereof - Indian Patent


Over 1100 research papers have been published and many proof of concepts for various devices have been demonstrated under the programme.