Internet Governance, broadly defined, is the development and application by Governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programs that shape the evolution and use of the Internet. It covers activities such as development and coordination of technical standards, operation of critical infrastructure and public policy issues.
Conceptually Internet Governance includes following layers
- Physical Infrastructure layer
- Code or Logical layer
- Content layer
Internet Governance involves Internet Protocol Addressing(IP Addressing), Domain Name System (DNS),Routing, Technical Innovations, Standardization, Security, Public Policy, Privacy, Legal Issues, Cyber Norms, Intellectual Property and taxation.
India supports a multi-stakeholder approach in matters on Internet Governance. On matters relating to national security, Government will continue to have supreme right and control. India’s strength in the sector is its industry and human resource which can be leveraged in a multi-stakeholder approach. Multi-stakeholder approach will also align with our investment strategy for Digital India and will help India in participation in the multi-billion-dollar business opportunity of Internet industry.
Responsibility of Internet Governance Division of MeitY: Includes representation of India’s Public Policy Concerns on global platform, Awareness on Internet Governance, Encouraging greater participation in Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Working groups and Engagement with Internet Society (ISOC), Promotion of Multi-stakeholder model of Internet Governance within India, strengthening internet, Internet Infrastructure of the country etc. Meity is also looking after issues related to Universal Acceptance and IDNs.
Engagement in International Forums/Meetings: MeitY continues to engage/participate in Several Global meetings like Internet Governance Forum (IGF), Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), Asia-Pacific Network Information Centre meetings (APNIC) etc.
Submission of India to various international forums/discussions can be accessed at www.indiaig.in(link is external)
Engagement with ICANN: MeitY is closely monitoring all the activity of ICANN and participating through GAC (Governmental Advisory Committee) and other public engagement. The GAC's key role is to provide advice to ICANN on issues of public policy especially where there may be an interaction between ICANN's activities or policies and national laws or international agreements.
Multi-stakeholder Consultations: India has supported for multi-stakeholder model of Internet Governance Mechanisms, which would involve all stakeholders and help to preserve the character of the Internet as a unified, dynamic engine for innovation, and which encourage equity and inclusion. A series of Multi-stakeholder consultations/ roundtable meetings are being organized by Ministry of Electronics & Information Technology. This Multi-stakeholder Consultation is open to all stakeholders. Any interested stakeholder may participate in such consultation. More information on participation may be found at www.indiaig.in
Awareness about the criticality of Universal Acceptance and the technical solutions being developed are done among Internet businesses, developers and start-up community. Workshops at following six locations have been completed:
- Raipur , Chhattisgarh on 22.06.2019
- Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh on 29.06.2019
- Jaipur, Rajasthan on 27.07.2019
- Pune, Maharashtra on 09.08.2019
- Lucknow , Uttar Pradesh on 30 August 2019
- Patna, on 23.11.2019.
The Research, Development and awareness projects that are being undertaken by the Internet Governance Division, MeitY are as follows:
I. Advanced Internet Operations Research in India (AIORI) by Software Technology Parks of India (STPI) Funded by MeitY.
The Project seeks to improve the security, stability, and understanding of the Internet’s DNS infrastructure in India by advanced Internet Operations research and it plans to do so by:
a. Building relationships among its community of members and facilitate an environment where information can be shared confidentially.
b. Enabling knowledge transfer by organizing workshop.
c. Research with operational relevance through data collection and analysis.
d. Increasing awareness of the DNS’s significance.
e. Offer useful, publicly available tools and services.
II. “MEITY Chair for Internet Policy: Value, Security and Governance” implementing by Indian Council for Research on International Economic Relations (ICRIER).
The objective is to provide MEITY with evidence-based research that will build capacity for India’s participation in multiple international fora while strengthening domestic policy. The research and related activities will be conducted under three broad themes.
a. Assessing the value generated by the Internet.
b. Enabling a secure and open Internet.
c. Developing a framework for Internet governance
The following research papers and Policy Brief are prepared:
a. India’s Domain Name Market.
b. Data Flows and Data Localization: An Economic Analysis.
c. Bridging the Digital Divide: Barriers to Adoption and Usage
d. Policy Brief on .in ccTLD.
e. Policy Brief on Ipv6 Transition Policy.
Web-Portal on Internet Policy www.internetpolicy.in is developed. News digest (updated fortnightly) and other content are uploaded in this portal.
III. “IG-SIM- Internet Governance – Structured Implementation Module” implemented by Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Delhi.
The project envisages providing technical and policy support to conduct of research, training, workshops and preparation of white paper, technology reports on various Internet Governance Policy and Technology related issues. This will include providing on-going implementation support to IG related activities of the Government of India, Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology (MeitY), review the global Internet policy and Technology landscape and provide assistance w.r.t. structured implementation on matters related to Internet Governance taking into account rapid technical developments and dynamically changing needs.
IV. Centre of Excellence in DNS Security by C-DAC, Bangalore (Funded by NIXI).
The objective of the Project is to become a model Centre and provide through leadership in DNS and DNS security related technologies, conduct high-end research in DNS Security, to build internal competencies in DNS Security by offering advanced training programme and establish a test-bed of DNS for research and training.
V. ICANN Research and Multi-stakeholder Engagement Assistant Programme by ICRIER (Funded by NIXI).
The long term objective of the Programme is to enable meaningful and sustained engagement in internet governance institutions and processes with particular focus on the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), update and contextualize the various stakeholder positions to bring out Indian perspective and crystallize the issues to be raised by Indian stakeholder in various multi-stakeholder processes; develop capacity and build expertise of Indian stakeholder on ICANN related interne Governance issues. The intermediate and short-term objective of the Programme is to support ICANN engagement for stakeholder and clearly understand the position and status of India stakeholder engaging with ICANN, with particular focus on developing a repository of research for GAC engagement.
VI. Development and development support of C-DAC software APIs for 8 languages by C-DAC Pune (Funded by NIXI).
The objective of the Programme are Development of C-DAC software APIs for 8 languages (viz. Assamese, Kannada, Kashmiri, Malayalam, Odia (Oriya), Sanskrit, Santali and Sindhi(Perso-arabic) & its integration in .IN registry, Translation and Transliteration suggestions of reserved names list available at “IN” registry and Translation/Transliteration suggestions of second level ccTLDs (e.g.edu, co, gov, etc).